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More filters. Sort order. Start your review of Civilizations. Aug 09, Hiroto rated it really liked it Shelves: combo-awesome-backgrounds-and-chara , french-arc , french-litt , babbled. Alors certes, je ne suis pas historienne.

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En partenariat avec NetGalley View all 3 comments. Sep 17, Henri-Charles Dahlem rated it really liked it. Sep 20, M- rated it really liked it. La redistribution des terres et l'instauration de communes paysannes en Europe? Aug 27, Isabo rated it really liked it. Aug 30, Muffinsandbooks rated it really liked it.

Je ne pensais pas accrocher autant! View 1 comment. Jul 08, Marie-Christine Wattiez rated it really liked it. Laurent Binet nous livre un roman atypique que je ne sais trop classer. Nov 10, Cleric snout rated it it was amazing Shelves: french-lit , uchronia , utopia , literary-fun.

It's rather hard to write a review of this genre-bending or genre-fusing novel!

Tocqueville et la fabrique de l’opinion - Loïc Blondiaux (2017, France Culture)

Mainly uchronia, but with a good dose of utopia which I personally loved , pastiche, adventure novel and others. The first part I thought beautiful, with the Norse characters drifting further and further down south. The second part was poignant, a travel narrative of incomprehension and failure.

The third was bewildering at first, because the point of view shifts abruptly from the familiar - Norse sag It's rather hard to write a review of this genre-bending or genre-fusing novel! The third was bewildering at first, because the point of view shifts abruptly from the familiar - Norse sagas, Columbus's journey of exploration - to the very alien, at least for a French reader.

Innovation is no longer seen as subversive to the social order, but simply opposed to traditional ways of doing things. The innovator is not a heretic. He is simply different from the masses or from his fellows. The innovator is ingenious and creative. In the previous centuries, the semantic field of innovation was composed of four concepts.

One is change , which is accepted depending on the context, but innovation is not.

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Among the intentional changes, reformation and renovation is accepted. Reformation is gradual. It builds on what already exist. Reformation acts here as a counter-concept to innovation. A revolution is radical, violent and total. By the nineteenth century, innovation had encapsulated this later connotation. Innovation is change to the established order, a change that is intentional, a change that brings radical change or revolutionarily transforms society.


  1. La fabrique politique : Machiavel.
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To be sure, some terms were in place in the previous centuries, such as change. Today, innovation is intentional change in the sense of planned change. It necessitates strategy and investment. Innovation retains the idea of revolution too. There are major innovations, so it is said, and they are the most studied innovations because of their revolutionary impacts on society, so it is believed.

In spite of these continuities, a new vocabulary has emerged. Innovation is originality , in three senses. First, innovation is difference, departure. Innovation recombines ideas or things in a new way Barnett, Third, innovation refers to origin, namely being first to originate initiate or use a new practice. For example, to economists, innovators are the firsts to commercialize a new invention. This connotation owes its existence to the market ideology.

It gave rise to a whole vocabulary on innovators versus laggards Rogers, In contrast, to the moderns, the world is too stable and needs revolutionary innovations. There are also counter-concepts. One is imitation. Innovation is contrasted to imitation. Imitation is not original or creative, so it is said. Such a view is contested.

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Innovation is contrasted to invention, which is mental. Innovation is putting invention to work. Yet, invention plays the role of a basic concept to innovation at the same time. While science and innovation were two separated things to natural philosophers of past centuries, they are now part of the same process. Invention is the first step in the process of innovation. Innovation starts with basic research, then applied research then development.

Innovation is the application of ideas, inventions and science. These concepts are mainly used by sociologists. Used concurrently with introduction or application, this concept applies to industrial innovation. It is not just the discovery of new knowledge, not just the development of a new product, manufacturing technique, or service, nor the creation of a new market. Until then, innovation as a concept was either a substantive something new or a verb introducing, adopting something new , an end or a means.

Innovation is not a thing or a single act but a series of events or activities called stages with a purpose.

This is not unlike innovation as substantive or verb. For example, sociologists use innovation as a substantive but focus on the verb diffusion. Similarly, economists stress the verb form commercialization. Everywhere, this process is framed in terms of a sequence with stages called models.

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